Constructing and validating subscales
A PA of 80 is usually regarded as a good level of test-retest reliability.Internal consistency describes estimates of reliability based on the average correlation among items within a test or subscales .
Therefore, this study aimed to construct a more valid and reliable questionnaire to map out and assess awareness and acceptance of diversity among healthcare staff, based on a study at two elderly care institutions in Stockholm.The questionnaire was developed in four phases: a comprehensive literature review, face and content validity, construct validity by factor analysis, and a reliability test by internal consistency and stability assessments.Results of different validity and reliability analyses suggest high face, content, and construct validity as well as good reliability in internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.68 to 0.8) and stability (test-retest: Spearman rank correlation coefficient: 0.60 to 0.76).To estimate the test-retest reliability of the AAAD subscales and items, a Spearman correlation was used for all subscales and single items, and a percentage of agreement (PA) was used for the subscales and single items with a low Spearman correlation.The closer the correlation coefficient (r) is to 1.0, the stronger the correlation .Many nursing science researchers have used the concept of cultural competence in studies that focus on nurses´ care of patients with different cultural backgrounds .
The concept is complex and many definitions are given in the literature.
In other words, when the questionnaires were returned in the envelopes, not even the research team was able to identify the participants.
Several statistical analyses were applied in the last stages of the pilot tests of constructed items for testing reliability and validity of the questionnaire.
Sweden, as a part of the European Union, is currently undergoing this transition toward multiculturalism and diversity because of rapid and expansive immigration into the country.
One of the main areas of inquiry of public health research is to investigate the health and well-being of the individual members of society in order to provide an environment that is inclusive, supportive, and free from discrimination for all members .
The Assessment of Awareness and Acceptance of Diversity in Healthcare Institutions questionnaire (AAAD) was developed in several phases to ensure validity and reliability. The reliability and validity of the questionnaire was examined in several pilot tests with different scale construction methods, including face, content, and construct validity.