Radioactive dating age of earth
The degree of harm will depend on the nature and extent of the radiation produced, the amount and nature of exposure (close contact, inhalation or ingestion), and the biochemical properties of the element; with increased risk of cancer the most usual consequence.However, radionuclides with suitable properties are used in nuclear medicine for both diagnosis and treatment.
Radionuclides are used in two major ways: either for their radiation alone (irradiation, nuclear batteries) or for the combination of chemical properties and their radiation (tracers, biopharmaceuticals).Potential health damage from exposure to radionuclides depends on a number of factors, and "can damage the functions of healthy tissue/organs.Radiation exposure can produce effects ranging from skin redness and hair loss, to radiation burns and acute radiation syndrome.During those processes, the radionuclide is said to undergo radioactive decay.These emissions are considered ionizing radiation because they are powerful enough to liberate an electron from another atom.It decays by emitting alpha particles and gamma radiation to become neptunium-237.
Smoke detectors use a very small quantity of Am is used as it emits alpha particles which ionise the air in the detector's ionization chamber.
A small electric voltage is applied to the ionised air which gives rise to a small electric current.
In the presence of smoke some of the ions are neutralized, thereby decreasing the current, which activates the detector's alarm.
Radionuclides are present in many homes as they are used inside the most common household smoke detectors.
The radionuclide used is americium-241, which is created by bombarding plutonium with neutrons in a nuclear reactor.
Thus polonium can be found in uranium ores at about 0.1 mg per metric ton (1 part in 10 Further radionunclides may occur in nature in virtually undetectable amounts as a result of rare events such as spontaneous fission or uncommon cosmic ray interactions.